What is a VLAN? How does VLAN work?
VLANs are a way of having multiple separate networks running over the same physical infrastructure. Isolating guests from the "main" network is a textbook example.
They work by having each switch port used by a client device configured for the appropriate VLAN (access port), then the ports connecting the router, APs and other switches are trunk ports which carry all traffic with a "tag" is added to each packet to indicate which VLAN it belongs to. For wireless devices, the AP can have multiple SSIDs and add the tag according to which one is being used.
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